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Schematic of endocytosis and exocytosis patterns of nanoparticles.
In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites.
These phenomena cause low targeting efficiency and severe systemic toxicity of the drug-delivery nanosystems.
Therefore, this review focuses on endocytosis and exocytosis patterns of nanoparticles in mammalian cells with respect to their size, shape, and surface chemistry (Figure 1).
However, these drug delivery nanosystems have shown some limitations regarding the toxicity of the nanoscale materials in the body.
In order to reduce their toxicity, it is crucial to study endocytosis, exocytosis, and clearance mechanisms for nanoparticles released from the nanoparticle–drug conjugates.